BIOLOGY/BIOLOGICAL STUDIES/BIOTECHNOLOGY/ BIOCHEMISTRY (304) Syllabus
Note: There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.
Biology is the science of living organisms. It studies the whole variety of processes of the animal and plant world around us, as well as the structural features of the human body. This is the answer to the question: “What does biology study?”
At the same time, biological knowledge includes methods of research, classifications and comparisons of all living things. Life is a qualitative “leap” from the world of atoms and molecules to conscious life.
Unit I: Reproduction
Reproductioninorganisms:Reproduction,acharacteristicfeatureofallorganismsforcontinuation ofspecies; Modes of reproduction –Asexual and sexual;Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission,sporulation, budding,gemmule,fragmentation;vegetativepropagationinplants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance ofseed andfruitformation. Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary Idea);Lactation (Elementary Idea). Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention ofsexually transmitted diseases(STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit II: Genetics and Evolution
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenicinheritance; Chromosome theoryofinheritance;Chromosomesandgenes;Sexdetermination–Inhumans,birds,honeybee;Linkage andcrossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness;Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia; Chromosomal disordersin humans;Down’ssyndrome, Turner’s andKlinefelter’ssyndromes. MolecularBasisofInheritance:SearchforgeneticmaterialandDNAasgeneticmaterial;Structure Of DNAand RNA; DNApackaging; DNAreplication;Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code,translation;Gene Expression And regulation–Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanismof evolution–Variation(Mutation andRecombination) andNatural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;Gene Flow Genetic Drift;Hardy-Weinberg's Principle;Adaptive Radiation;Humanevolution.
Unit III: Biology andHumanWelfare
Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines;Cancer, HIV and AIDs;Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse. Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture,single cell protein, Biofortification;Apiculture and Animal Husbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
Unit IV: Biotechnology and ItsApplications
PrinciplesandprocessofBiotechnology:Genetic Engineering(RecombinantDNAtechnology). Application of Biotechnology health and agriculture:Humaninsulinandvaccineproduction,gene therapy; Genetically Modified Organisms-Bt crops;TransgenicAnimals;Biosafety Issues–Biopiracy And Patents.
Unit V: Ecology And Environment
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Populationinteractions– mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number,biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorus); Ecological Succession; EcologicalServices– Carbon fixation, pollination,oxygen release. Biodiversityand its conservation:Concept ofBiodiversity;Patterns ofBiodiversity;Importance ofBiodiversity;Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves,National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues:Air pollution and its control;Water pollution and its control;Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming;Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Anythreecasestudiesassuccessstoriesaddressingenvironmental issues.
Tips for BIOLOGY
Make learning a daily routine.
Repeat study over several shorter periods over different days. Study the material weekly, not just before tests. Leave plenty of time between study and self-testing so you’re not just testing short-term memory and repeat until you know that you can always get them right. Well before an exam, take a subset of the material and study it as if the exam on that topic was tomorrow. Finally, don't put it off until the night before the exam.
If your professor provides materials ahead of class (e.g., lecture outline, PowerPoint) get them and use them to guide your note-taking.
Flesh out notes in 24-48 hour cycle. “Note Massage”
After lecture add to, or rewrite, your notes while the scribbles still make sense. Do it regularly as a part of a formal schedule or you won't do it at all. Use complete sentences; add labels and notes to diagrams even if you think they're quite clear already; try to organize things into categories to show relationships.
Get all the missing holes filled. Use other students, your text, and your professor.
For topics which you do not fully understand, get explanations. Don’t wait until close to the exam to fill in this understanding. Get it now. Before the test you need to be studying with a higher level of understanding.
Study to understand, not just to memorize words.
Don’t just read over your notes and PowerPoints. If all you do is read your notes, the text, and the PowerPoint, then you'll gain only a passive familiarity with the material.
When trying to learn the material, focus on the right stuff. The things that your professor considers most important to the subject and which are most likely to appear on quizzes and exams are the things that have been emphasized in lecture and in assigned readings. Learn these things first and best.
You should practice explaining the material and applying it to new situations. Why should you this? Questions sometimes pose entirely new situations, which you need to analyze – even though you’ve never seen that situation before.